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HTML - bazele programarii HTML - ce software ne trebuie?

HTML - bazele programarii HTML - ce software ne trebuie?



HTML este
limbajul care face web-ul sa mearga. Este limbajul de programare cel mai des intalnit in site-urile pe care le vizitati. Este inteles de orice computer din lume si este modul universal de a crea documente. HTML nu are cele mai bune unelte de formatare si de aceea nu puteti garanta ca paginile voastre vor arata la fel in orice browser, dar fara el nu ar fi internet.

Puteti, bineinteles, folosi un editor WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) HTML pentru a face website-uri, dar ele au 3 dezavantaje importante:

  1. Uneori folosesc prea mult cod pentru a crea designul unei pagini, ceea ce incetineste timpul de descarcare
  2. Nu intotdeauna folosesc un cod pe de-a-ntregul compatibil
  3. Unele editoare WYSIWYG schimba orice cod HTML introdus de mana

Din aceste cauze, puteti crea mult mai bine cod HTML scriind de mana. Trebuie sa admit ca eu nu fac asta prea mult pentru ca imi ia mai mult timp decat folosind un editor WYSIWYG, dar stiu ca este bine sa ai cunostinte de baza de HTML. Va asigur ca daca veti invata HTML veti crea pagini web mult mai bune.

Acest tutorial va va invata bazele programarii HTML.

Ce software ne trebuie?

Nu aveti nevoie de un software special pentru a scrie cod HTML si multi web designeri argumenteaza ca cele mai bune web site-uri sunt create in Notepad! Pentru acest tutorial, totusi, voi folosi unul din programele mele preferate de web design, FirstPage 2000. Este gratuit si puteti sa-l descarcati.

Unele din avantajele folosirii unui editor HTML este acela ca va colora codul HTML astfel incat va fi usor de citit, 'sters' codul cand ati terminat, si puteti folosi butoane pentru a insera coduri care se repeta.

Nu conteaza daca folositi Notepad, FirstPage 2000 sau alt editor HTML, acest tutorial va va invata limbajul HTML.

Intelegerea limbajului HTML

Limbajul actual HTML este usor de invatat odata ce cunoasteti bazele. HTML este facut din tag-uri. Un tag este o parte de text continuta in <> si arata astfel

Exista 2 tipuri de tag-uri. De deschidere si de inchidere. Cele de inchidere sunt diferite doar prin / inaintea lor

Tag-urile apar in perechi astfel:

<center>Text in here is centered</center>

Orice este continut intre 2 tag-uri va avea aceste tag-uri aplicate. Un bun exemplu este folosirea tag-ului pentru a alinia textul:

Text in here is centered

Aproape orice tag are si un tag de inchidere, dar cateva nu au. Ce trebuie sa va amintiti este


Declararea HTML

Deschideti programul pe care il folositi pentru a scrie HTML. Daca folositi un editor HTML veti avea niste cod deja. Daca nu aveti deja, scrieti urmatoarele

Va voi explica ce inseamna mai jos:

Aceasta ii spune browser-ului ce limbaj a fost folosit pentru pagina. Nu este neaparat necesar, dar este bine sa fie .

Ii spune browser-ului unde este inceputul unui document HTML.

Acesta este inceputul sectiunii header. Sectiunea header contine configurarea optiunilor paginii(cum ar fi titlul).

Ii spune browser-ului ce sa scrie drept titlu al paginii. Aceasta apare in bara de titlu in partea de sus a browser-ului. Introduceti numele paginii voastre intre tagurile

Sfarsitul sectiunii header.

Orice este cuprins intre aceste taguri este corpul paginii. Aici este locul textului, imaginilor etc. Aceasta este cea mai importanta parte a paginii.

Arata sfarsitul documentului HTML.



In part 1 I explained how to declare an HTML document and I explained how HTML was built up using <tag>text</tag>. Below is the HTML you added in the last part.

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC '-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN'>




For this section of the tutorial I will show you how to create a simple homepage. The first thing you will want to do is change the title of the page from Untitled to:

My Personal Homepage

To do this change the tag:



<title>My Personal Homepage</title>

The <font> Tag

The <font></font> tag set are the most common and one of the most versatile tags found in HTML. Using the tags in the basic form they will show text on the page (but they can be changed). To start off we will just display the text

Welcome To My Homepage

on the screen. To do this you need to add

<font>Welcome To My Homepage</font>

between the <body> and the </body> tags. This will display the text in a standard font size, black, in Times New Roman. Not the most interesting thing for your homepage.

Size, Color and Face

These are the three things you can set for a piece of text. These are the first tag attributes you have come across. We will start with the Face attribute. Instead of having a new tag for font face (the font it will be displayed in) you add it to the font tag like this

<font face='Arial'>Welcome To My Homepage</font>

As you can see you enclose the name of the font in quotation marks '' after an equals sign. You do not need to include this in the end tag.

More than one attribute can be added to a tag so it is easy to display this in a different size. The only thing you must remember is that sizes in HTML are not the same as normal font sizes (measured in point sizes (pt). They are a single number which relate to a standard font size in the following way:

HTML Font Size

Standard Font Size

8 pt

10 pt

12 pt

14 pt

18 pt

24 pt

36 pt

You can make a nice large title by changing the tag to the following

<font face='Arial' size='7'>Welcome To My Homepage</font>

As you can see, once you know a tag it is easy to add extra options to it. The final one you will learn is the color tag. You must make sure that you must use the American spelling for this. Color is a little different to the other attributes. It can be changed using an HTML Color Word (a standard color name) but only some color names work with this (you can see a list of them here). You can also use HEX codes. HEX codes are in the format #000000 (# followed by six numbers). The first 2 numbers are the amount of Red, the second 2 are Green and the last 2 are blue. To made this text red you could either use

<font face='Arial' size='7' color='red'>Welcome To My Homepage</font>


<font face='Arial' size='7' color='#FF0000'>Welcome To My Homepage</font>

Centering The Text

Finally you will want to center the text so that it looks like a real title. To do this you can use the <center> tag. To do this simply enclose everything you want centered in the <cente
r> tags like this

<font face='Arial' size='7' color='red'>Welcome To My Homepage</font>

Which would display text like this:

Welcome To My Homepage


You have now learnt how to display text on your web page and how to format the color, size and font of it. You have also learnt how to center things on the page. This is the code you should now have for your website.

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC '-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN'>


<font face='Arial' size='7' color='red'>Welcome To My Homepage</font>



In the last part we finished with the following code:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC '-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN'>


<font face='Arial' size='7' color='red'>Welcome To My Homepage</font>

Which displayed the words 'Welcome To My Homepage' in large, red, Arial letters in the middle of your page.

In this part I am going to show you how to position text (or anything else) on your page. I will also show you some other useful HTML tags.

The <p> Tag

The <p> tag is extremely. P stands for Paragraph. It is used to break up text into paragraphs. To define a paragraph you just include the text inside the <p> and </p> tags. This will then group the text together and leave a space after it (like the paragraphs on this page.

The <p> tag has an attribute which can be added to it. This is the align option. You can specify three types of alignment (like in a word processor) - left, center and right. For example to align the text right you use

<p align='right'>Text</p>

It is up to you to decide whether to use the <center> tag or the <p align='center'> tag. I usually use the <center> tag as it is shorter which will reduce loading times. It is hardly ever necessary to use the align='left' attribute as nearly all browsers automatically align text to the left but some people use it.

The <br> Tag

Sometimes you will not want to leave a space after your paragraphs. To do this you should use the <Br> (break) tag. This tag is very useful as, wherever you insert it, it will start a new line. To create a new line without a space you use the <Br> tag and to create a line break you use <Br><Br>. There is no end tag for the <Br> tag.

For example

This text is on a line
This text is on the next line

This is text after a line break

This is text after 3 <Br> tags.

The <hr> Tag

The <hr> tag is another very useful way of breaking up your page. It will insert a horizontal line like this:

As you can see this is an extremely simple to use tag. It has no closing tag. There are a few attributes for them but they are rarely used. You can change the height (in pixels) the width (in % of window or pixels) and the color (Internet Explorer only). Here is an example of how to create a line 30 pixels high, 50% of the window in blue (you will see it in gray if you are not using Internet Explorer

<hr width='50%' size='30' color='#0000FF'>

Comment Tags

Comment tags are useful if you want to put notes into your HTML code which will not show up on the page. They can be used for copyright notices, little notes to tell you what each section of code is about, notes to people reading your code or anything else you want to use them for. Some web hosts use them so that their servers will know where to insert banners (they look for a specific comment which you must add). These comments take the form

<!-- Your comment -->

The browser will ignore anything in a <!-- --> tag.



You should know how what a hyperlink is and what it is used for. If you do not, a hyperlink is a piece of text you click to be taken to another page. A bookmark is a way of bookmarking a point on your page so that you can hyperlink to it.

The <a> Tag

The <a> tag is used when creating hyperlinks and bookmarks. It stands for anchor. The functions are explained more fully below.

<a href>

To create a hyperlink you need to use the href variable of the <a> tag. Href stands for Hyperlink REFerence. To make a piece of text or an image into a hyperlink you contain it in

<a href='pageurlhere'>Text Goes In Here</a>

Hyperlinks can specify several things:


Example Code

Web Page or Site

<a href='https://www.webaddress.com/folder/page'>

Local Page

<a href='pagename.html'>

Local Page In A Folder Level Below

<a href='foldername/pagename.html'>

Local Page In A Folder Level Above

<a href='../pagename.html'>

Open E-mail Program With E-mail Addressed

<a href='mailto:yourname@yourname.com'>

Bookmarked Section

<a href='#bookmarkname'>

Bookmarked Section In Another Page

<a href='pagelocation.htm#bookmarkname'>


Bookmarks on a page are very easy to make as they also use the <a> tag. Instead of changing the href variable you use the name variable. For example

<a name='top'>The First Text In The Page</a>

Will create a bookmark called top in the text which the tag surrounds. An image can also be contained in this tag. You can then link to this using a standard hyperlink

<a href='#top'>Back To Top</a>

You can name bookmarks anything you like. Bookmarks are very useful on pages which are very long as they can be used to quickly go to another part of the page.



images are a very important part of an HTML page. They make it different from an e-mail or just a printed page. They can be used as a design element to make pages look better and can be used as the background to make the page more interesting.


Images are added to pages very easily. All you need to do is use an <img> tag. You must use some variables with it, though, or it will show

Which is not very helpful. You must use the src= variable to choose the image to insert. Like a hyperlink this can either be a relative reference or a direct reference including the site's url. For example

<img src='https://www.gowansnet.com/images/gnet.gif'>

If you include an image in a hyperlink it will, by default, display a blue border round the image. To turn this off you should use the


variable for the image.

Resizing Images

You can resize images inside the browser using two other image variables - width and height. Even if you do not want to resize the image it is useful to specify its size using these variables as it will put a placeholder in the browser and the page will not change much when the image is loaded.

These tags can also be use to make an image bigger or smaller. All measurements are in pixels. Here is an example

<img src='https://www.gowansnet.com/images/gnet.gif' border='0' width='80' height='30'>


<img src='https://www.gowansnet.com/images/gnet.gif' border='0' width='10' height='10'>

It is good to remember that it is probably better to resize an image in an image editing program if you are making it smaller. This is because the smaller image will have a smaller file size and will load quicker. This would not be the case if you resized it in the browser.


The final variable of an image is the alt variable. This tells the browser what the alternative text for an image should be if the browser has images turned off. It is used like this

<img src='https://www.gowansnet.com/images/gnet.gif' alt='The Gowansnet Logo'>

Finally you should also remember to use gif or jpeg images as the file sizes are much smaller.

Background Colors

You can change the background color of the page using the bgcolor variable of the <body> tag. It is used like this

<body bgcolor='#0000FF'>

which would set the background color as blue. You could also use an HTML color word.

This is a very simple tag to use as there is really no more to it. You should always remember to ONLY use a light color text on a dark background or a light color text on a dark background. NEVER use blue on red or red on blue. It is generally thought that a white background with black text is best.

Background Images

Background images can be placed on a web page. A background image is an image which is tiled behind the text. It is done using another variable of the <body> tag. It is background and it is used like this:

<body background='myimage.gif'>

It is sometimes a good idea to include a background color as well so that people can read the text on the right color before the background image has loaded. Again, you should remember only to use contrasting colors.


That is the end of this tutorial. You have learnt how to create an HTML page with formatted text split into paragraphs, insert images, link between pages and link to different parts of you
r page. Watch out for our tutorials on how to create frames and tables.

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